Turkey is a peninsula and there are different geographical regions. So, all kinds of transportation cannot be efficient for every single city. On the other hand, you can prefer all four transportation options: air, sea, rail, road…
There’re almost 50 different airports, and you can fly to all of them from domestic. A few of them have international terminal. Most popular one is Istanbul Airport, and the others are Sabiha Gokcen (Istanbul), Esenboga (Ankara), Adnan Menderes (Izmir), and Antalya.
If you’ll visit another city of If you’ll visit a city different from the above, you should fly from Istanbul, Ankara, or Izmir. According to your destination, another transportation option can be better. For example, if you’ll visit Edirne, you should fly to Istanbul, then train or bus trip. There are 81 cities in Turkey, but only some of them have an airport.
Sadly, there’s not too much options on it. There’re only a few international options and all others are domestic. You can use steamboats in Istanbul, and Izmir. Also there are ferryboat lines in some cities such as Canakkale.
There are both international and national train lines. You can prefer them if you’ve enough time. The prices of their tickets are cheap, but they’re not fast too much indeed. One of the international train lines is between Istanbul and Bucharest. Another one connection between Van and Tabriz.
There is also High Speed Train (YHT) and it connection between Ankara and Konya, Konya and Istanbul, Ankara and Istanbul.
Mainline trains are operated in different cities such as Ankara, Izmir, Konya, Denizli, Adana etc. Three of them are very famous for tourists: Dogu Express is operated in the direction of Ankara and Kars. Vangolu Express is available in Ankara and Tatvan and finally Guney (South) Kurtalan Express for Ankara and Kurtalan.
Also you can enjoy in urban transportation by trains, subways, trams etc. in different cities such Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir, Konya, Antalya and others.
You can rent a car, but also you can prefer intercity buses in Turkey. If your destination is more than 500 kilometers, renting car can be better. On the other hand, if you’ll go less than 500 km, intercity buses can provide you some good times.